JLPT N1 Grammar:〜(か)のごとく あたかも〜(か)のごとき あたかも〜(か)のごとく

Today’s grammar points. Three more similar expressions with similar meaning. In this case, these are more formal and usually used in writing. You may never need to use them, but you will probably need to understand them!

  • 〜(か)のごとく
  • あたかも〜(か)のごとき
  • あたかも〜(か)のごとく


  • formal expression
  • written form
  • used when giving an example “like~”
  • often used in proverbs and set phrases
  • 意味:〜とよく似ている/〜のようだ

She acted like a queen.

The company president was angry as a raging fire.


  • formal
  • written
  • used when comparing things
  • 意味:〜とよく似ている

In the incident regarding the fake production of A foods, the company president spoke as if he was completely unrelated. But we can’t think that he doesn’t know anything.


  • formal
  • explains that something resembles something else
  • 意味:〜とよく似ている

That guy speaks as if he knows everything.

He acts as if he’s the strongest person in the world, but he’s really a cowards.

Ninjas jump from tree to tree like a monkey, and dive in the sea like a dolphin.

JLPT N1 Grammar Points:〜いかんだ /〜いかんによっては /〜いかんによらず・〜いかんにかかわらず

Today’s grammar point focuses on three different ways to express “depending on” something. Those are:

  • 〜いかんだ
  • 〜いかんによっては
  • 〜いかんによらず・〜いかんにかかわらず


  • “depending on~”
  • expreses that there are various results depending on something

The undertaking of this project depends on the president’s decision.

Wife: Since you’ve been working so hard, won’t your salary increase a little this time?
Husband: Well, that depends on the company’s results, so I can’t really say anything.

Doctor: We will decide the treatment method depending on the results of this examination.


  • “depending on~”
  • expresses that the state of TWO results depends on the reason

Student: The typhoon is getting closer. Will tomorrow’s seminar be cancelled?
Teacher: That’s right. Depending on the course of the typhoon, it may be cancelled.

Depending on the results of the next election, there may be a transfer of power.


  • expresses that no matter what happens, something is still possible
  • ~doesn’t matter, you can still ~
  • “regardless of ~, you can still ~”

A: 外国人もこの会社に入社することができるんでしょうか?
B: はい、国籍のいかんによらず、入社試験を受けることができます。
A: Can foreigners work in this company?
B: Yes, regardless of nationality, you can take the entrance exam.

In sports, the important thing is to try hard until the end, no matter the result.

JLPT N1 Grammar Point: ~につけ(ても)/ 〜につけ、〜につけ

Today’s grammar point are two similar expressions with different meanings:

  1. 〜につけ(ても)whenever ~ happens
  2. 〜につけ、〜につけ whether ~ or ~



  • Whenever ~, something always happens
  • When there is ~, something always follows
  • often used together with なに and なにごと

Whenever I remember the mountains in my hometown, the faces of friends I used to play with come to mind.


  • Whether ~ or ~, the result is always …
  • ~ and ~ are often comparative or contrasting words

A star’s words and actions attract attention from the media, whether they are good or bad.

JLPT N1 Grammar Point: ともすれば・ややもすれば・どうかすると


  • shows a state which is “easy to become”
  • something negative/going in a bad direction
  • comes before the word it describes
  • this part of sentence often ends in なる

Even for people who think they are OK, it’s easy to be defrauded, so you must be careful.

Doctor: When you live alone, it’s easy to neglect your eating habits and become nutrition deficient, so you must be careful.

ややもすれば (=ともすれば)

In a society overloaded with information it is easy to be confused.


  • easy to become
  • tendency for something negative to happen
  • conversaional

When there are 2 ways of resolving things, people have a tendency to unconsciously choose the simpler one.

JLPT N1 Grammar Point: ~にはあたらない・~にはおよばない

〜にはあたらない – it’s not necessarily~

  • judgement/evaluation
  • “It’s not necessarily ~”; “We can’t just ~”
  • Used when there’s nothing to be surprised about


A: あの選手の力だったら、優勝しても驚くにはあたらないでしょう。

A: With that player’s strength, we can’t be surprised if he wins.
B: Yes, that’s right.

Example 2:

A: メールでお礼を言うのは失礼でしょうか。
B: いやあ、失礼にはあたらないと思いますけど。

A: Would it be rude to say thanks by email?
B: No, I don’t think it’s necessarily rude.

〜にはおよばない  “No need to ~”

  • judgement/evaluation that it is unnecessary for ~
  • no need to ~


A: 駅に着いたらご連絡ください。お迎えに参りますから。
B: ありがとうございます。でもご心配には及びません、一人で行けますから。

A: Please contact me when you arrive at the station. I will come and meet you.
B: Thank you, but there is no need to worry. I can come by myself.

Example 2:

A: 新しくコンピューターシステムを入れ替える背景についてご説明いたします。
B: 背景はよく知っていますのでご説明には及びません。新しく導入するシステムについての説明をお願いします。

A: I’ll explain the background to the change to the new computer system.
B: I know about the background, so there is no need to explain. Please explain the new system.

JLPT STUDY: Grammar Points: “as soon as”

Today I decided to also include grammar study into my blog entries. Whether or not I will include every single grammar point from my book in this blog I haven’t decided yet, but I will be taking groups of similar grammar points every week and studying them together like this.

Grammar:”as soon as~”


  • 〜 occurs immediately after
  • often something unexpected

As soon as he entered the classroom and took his seat, he fell asleep.



  • occurs immediately after ~
  • no unexpectedness


A: 今日の仕事は大変だったね。
B: ああ。家に帰ってベッドに入るがはやいか寝てしまった。

A: Today’s work was tough, wasn’t it?
B: Yeah. I went home and as soon as I got into bed I fell asleep.



  • happens at the same time or right after
  • usually a recurring event; something that happens often
  • describes the actions of two different people


A: 教師という仕事が嫌だなぁと思うのは、どんな時ですか?
B: そうだね。例えば、教えたそばから学生が間違える時などは、がっかりしますね。

A: Is there ever a time you think you don’t like being a teacher?
B: Well, I am a little disappointed when the students make a mistake after you just taught them something.



  • Refers to an interval between ~ and ~
  • This expression emphasizes how short that interval is (it feels as if it happens right after)

A: 監督、日本選手権優勝おめでとうございます。
B: ありがとうございます。でも大仕事をやり遂げたかと思う間もなく、次の試合が始まります。

A: Manager, congratulations on passing the Japan championship.
B: Thank you. But as soon as this job is done, the next game will begin.



  • Takes place immediately
  • Not unexpected
  • Old literary style

1. デパートなんかでは、クリスマスが終わるや否やお正月の飾り付けが始まったね。
Department stores start decorating for New Year’s as soon as Christmas is over.

The new CD reached #1 in sales as soon as it was released.